The Universe is asking you to examine your relationship to power and powerlessness and all your raw emotions and subconscious desires. Uranus in here can have us looking at these very differently and integrating them. We can reach own for new solutions, new ways of framing experiences and in fact see that our fears have no power over us — unless we choose to give it to them. At first it might appear overwhelming but Uranus is intent on showing you your true power. Step out into a radical new dynamic now. Unlike Mercury, Venus your ruler rarely goes retrograde.
So when she does on Oct 6 and in her ruling house in your chart 2nd , this is your cue to pause for serious thought. During the retrograde period she will move back into your sign and while she is moving backwards, Jupiter will shift out of your 2nd and on in to your 3rd. Is there an opportunity you have missed? You are being asked to look again or to be given a second chance opportunity. This is one of those rare cycles that can bring back something you missed —or return something that was always intended for you. Grab it when it reappears. Jupiter in your 3rd sees a yearlong focus on writing, communication, commerce, the internet, study, travel or just you discovering how far one idea can take you.
Actually a very long way indeed. Jupiter will remain in your 3rd until December and remember, he is also in his ruling sign. This makes him extra expansive, optimistic and adventurous. The results could just be powerful magic with which to build the cornerstone for your future, Libra. Make the year of making the many opportunities around you realities. Scorpio You begin on an optimistic note with Jupiter in your 1st. This is a year to expand your horizons, to be confident and to dare to do something new! You will always have your deep Scorpio side, but this year sees you more outgoing, open and embracing whatever comes your way.
Of course, it has to have depth, meaning and purpose for you. Above all, Jupiter in here is telling you not to be your old self. So, where do you feel the need for change? In how you look? How others see you? Jupiter in our 1st often sees us being sent what we need — not what we think we want.
Jupiter will also make a highly beneficial angle to Pluto during the second week and January which could see you not only in a position to successfully push forward with ideas, but a beneficial transformation occur on the work front or around a particular project or plan. The biggest shifts for you in are around love and relationships, Scorpio. Neptune with his long term stay in your romantic 5th is linking you to the prospect of a more spiritual connection. Just ensure you see your partner for exactly who they are however no matter the depth of the connection that you feel.
If you are placing them on a pedestal, not only could you be setting them up to fall off of it, but it actually says more about you than it does about them. So, if you find yourself doing this, look within rather than at them and work on your relationship with your self-worth. In fact, a radical new approach to relationships could be on the horizon for you in , Scorpio.
Uranus, planet of surprises and thrills, exits your work sector on May 15 to arrive in your partnership zone. There may be surprising twists and turns ahead with partners or potential partners — or even enemies as they are ruled by this house in your chart. But the way you are in close relationships or what you need for a partner, is likely to undergo a radical overhaul now. Get ready for the love revolution, baby! Unusual, off-beat and highly individual partners or potential partners may appear now.
They may even keep you guessing. The thing about Uranus is that all bets are off. Just prepare to be surprised. Saturn and ruler Pluto in your 3rd this year make for serious thoughts, ideas and a more serious attitude towards them. You can be taken more seriously at this time especially by those in business or who you present those ideas to. It may take you longer to bring projects to completion now but the results will be worth taking your time over.
In October, Venus retrogrades in your 1st bringing personal desires, love affairs and even your creativity to a standstill. This will not be a good time to begin anything from a creative venture to starting a new love affair. Venus retrogrades rarely but when she does it is our opportunity to look at what we want from our relationships and review them. During her retrograde cycle, Venus will move back into your mysterious 12th in November before heading direct again and arriving back in your 1st at the start of December. Watch what comes to light during this time as something is about to be revealed — possibly concerning a partner, lover or even a creative project.
The past can feature but in a Venus retrograde, be very wary of getting re-involved with someone from your past. If someone reappears and wants a second chance, my advice to you is to wait until Venus is well out of her retrograde shadow which will happen after the third week of December, before giving your answer.
During this Venus retro, Jupiter is going to move out of your 1st and on into your 2nd on November 8. This is of course your house of money, assets, property, talents, self-worth and people who are assets to you. Sagittarius What is really driving you, Sag? What is it you really want? Welcome to the fast lane. Ruler Jupiter is set to spend most of the year in your spiritual 12th. This can often see us working hard as something behind the scenes — maybe even uncredited.
You may even be working secretly on plans you are not yet ready to share with the world. Massive insights into yourself and what you need to be doing to satisfy not just your body, but your soul can be just one pay-off here. You are being prepped for something and it may begin first to manifest in your job or even on the health and wellbeing front. Exciting changes are due to take place on the work front in and beyond for you, Sag. Chances are you relate to love and your children if you have them very differently now to when this cycle started. Be warned however that Uranus is due to make just one more incursion back into your 5th when he retrogrades from November but will exit this house for good in His re-visit however could coincide with that electric but oh so individual lover popping back up or your children in full-on rebellion mode.
Forewarned is forearmed with Uranus. If your job or working life has fallen into a rut, prepare to be liberated. Uranus can have you setting off in a new, different and totally radical direction to the path you have been on. Even if you are not in paid work, this house rules your daily tasks and routines. Expect these to be turned on their head as you come up with new and frankly innovative ways of getting things done. However, be aware this is also your house of wellbeing.
It may be that you see the need for a radical new approach when it comes to wellness, fitness and your health. Uranus can have you thinking outside the box. Uranus sends you mind in different directions. You could also be looking to study — astrology is ruled by Uranus so if this appeals to you, why not give it a try?
You could also be drawn to read about entrepreneurs, revolutionary thinkers and innovators across all walks of life. What is this trying to tell you? Perhaps you should emulate their thinking or that you belong amongst them! Uranus rules electricity, TV, the internet and IT. This is your opportunity to broadcast your work. Want to be an influencer?
Your unique audience is waiting for that podcast or YouTube channel. But what about love? Think about this, people love to be needed. Unless someone feels you need them and they can do something for you, they may wonder why you would want them in your life. All you need it love, Sag so open up and admit this! Ruler Jupiter arrives in your 1st on November 8 — a red letter day for all Sagittarians.
Think back 12 years to when he was last in your sign. What opportunities were you offered back then? Which ones did you follow up on and which ones did you pass up? Any regrets? Expect similar themes to emerge now except you are 12 years older and hopefully wiser. Expect travel, learning opportunities and also lucky breaks while Jupiter is in here.
Capricorn Have I got news for you! You are about to experience a cosmic conundrum!
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The Alchemy of can deliver all sorts of liberation to you. If you were alive and conscious back then, check out how that year went for you as you might find some juicy clues in how to make the most of this year. Most signs that have Saturn approaching tend to run screaming for the hills. Saturn is strict, has high expectations and demands accountability.
You work well with structure and blossom when given responsibility. Rickety foundations are kicked away with strong, solid roots replacing them. Capricorn, you are a builder, what you decide to focus on and establish now is not only going to effect this year but possibly the next 28 or so. Choose your projects carefully but as your ruler has your back, aim high.
Love gets interesting this year, as Uranus, the glorious unpredictable one, is going into your 5th house of pleasure and creativity. You have a touch of genius about you, your longings are shifting, and you might find yourself thrust previously unknown sensual experiences.
For some Capricorns, there may even be a surprise pregnancy or connection with kids. Uranus intends to spend quite a bit of time here so open your heart to embrace radical loving. Both these babies are in your sign! The Sun in Capricorn is also conjunct Pluto. You are plunging into a fresh way of being. Anything that is not authentic is being swept away.
You are determined to succeed and thrive and only want genuine connections around you. With Mercury entering your sign on the 11th and then teaming up with Saturn on the 13th you enter making a deep commitment, hopefully this is a commitment to yourself and your life path as well as to anything external. Take the time to check that you are dealing with others with the appropriate empathy and kindness and are not being too bullish in tearing towards your goals.
Jupiter is giving you a gift in all you collaborations and there should be a feeling of comradery all year. Benefits from friends, groups, bands literally if you are in one! No matter what it is you want to achieve this year, Jupiter in here says to begin with exploring the potential for help amongst people you know — or are getting to know. Jupiter always expands our experience in whatever area of our charts he is in.
So, expect your social circle to grow and to learn something new about the world from the people you connect with. Jupiter in here also gives you the confidence to be yourself. The fabulous thing about coming from this perspective is that you attract others who totally dig you the way you are — and resonate with you. July 13 sees an eclipse of the heart occur in your relationship sector. What needs to be addressed? This is a solar eclipse and while it is a partial one, you need to bear in mind that eclipses cover up — and then things are revealed over time.
Your emotional needs could surface and if you are in a relationship, you can use this to get closer to your partner. If someone appears, take things slowly — again, this is due to the eclipse covering up. Wait for the real person to reveal themselves. If what finally comes to light is that you cannot find the solution to your issues, then you may decide to walk away. Whatever occurs now, expect the outcome to be deep and lasting. Even when he retrogrades from April until September this gives you ample opportunity to continue to build on what you have started to work on or establish.
Think of this period as shoring up your foundations or adding to the strength of what you have begun. This is important as when Venus makes a rare retrograde in your 10th of career, reputation and status, you may suddenly lose your sense of purpose and drive. Setbacks and delays are possible and you may even end up feeling you have had a successful charisma by-pass operation as no matter how hard you try, you just may not come across to others in the way you would like.
This is because Venus starts her retrograde in your 11th and then moves back into your 10th. Try to avoid important meetings during this period if you can. Darcy only to discover you have snagged George Wickham. Or that job offer turns out not to be what you thought it was. Fortunately by early December, Saturn, Venus and Mercury are returned to forward motion. New ideas and plans will be at the front of your mind for and what is more — you will have the foundation in place and the knowledge to get the most of these.
Do the groundwork and could just put you on course for long term success. Aquarius Your ruler Uranus takes 84 years to orbit the Sun and around seven years to shift signs. Uranus shifting signs is the biggest significant factor of Uranus is moving towards shaking up your idea of where you want to live, who you want to live with and how you relate to your relatives.
Luckily Uranus is your ruler, so you not only handle the unexpected but thrive on change. While Uranus is in your 4th, the one thing you can expect is to be creating a lifestyle that fits you and living now on your terms. Do you envision living in a totally different way to your parents or the way you were brought up? Perhaps you even felt out-of-step with your family. Time to claim your home, idea of family, living space or lifestyle. The first is at the end of January in your house of partnerships and long term love.
This may bring to an end a situation with someone which has been hanging around since August last year! The New Moon and Solar eclipse in your sign on February 15 is a game changer for you. Everything you knew or thought you knew is stripped away. You are going through a powerful rebirth that gives you the chance to start again. Let go of fear, insecurities and negative perceptions. As empowering and liberating as this is it also involves letting go of habits, people and any lifestyle that no longer serves you.
Make sure you sort things out before then. A peak emotional experience is on the way. In , Jupiter continues to shine his light on your career zone. Jupiter reveals where our luck is likely to be, BUT he insists we stretch and grow. There are huge opportunities in your career in Believe in yourself and be prepared to take risks.
What do you want to achieve? If I had a magic wand what spell would you want me to cast on your job? Jupiter is your wand; he will provide you with the clues, BUT you need to follow through and make it happen. Anything is possible with Jupiter at your side. Ready or not the spotlight is on you as your career soars. In November it will be time to make a wish. Because Jupiter will be moving on into your 11th which not only rules friends but your goals, wishes and dreams too! I always tell people not just to make one wish but three when Jupiter arrives in here. You should see at least one fulfilled during his stay — possibly more.
But you do have to remember he is not your fairy godfather! Jupiter will aid you with goal fulfilment but you have to do everything in your power to attain it. So see the journey itself as the goal rather than you destination and you will most probably arrive with what you want when you get there. Socialising with larger groups, people with overseas connections, people with different belief systems to your own — Jupiter is all about opening up your horizons and seeing yourself as a friend to the world.
Larger than life people may cross your path or you could benefit from the generosity of friends too. If your social life has been cut back Jupiter in here restores it. The only fly in the proverbial ointment is Saturn who is in your 12th house of endings, completion, lack of boundaries, addictions and spirituality. You might find it hard to make commitments or be presented with intense personal relationships that are difficult to pin down. The Universe is asking you to make a choice.
There is no messing around when Papa Saturn is involved. Your subconscious is activated, and you can no longer bury things. This may be hard work and at times confronting. Whatever you do, you are advised to play by the rules now, be upfront in all your dealings and know what you stand for and stand by that. The good news is that if you do the homework, you begin lighter and free from a ton of long term baggage.
Pisces Pisces, polish up your fins and get ready to swim in a whole new ocean in Jupiter, the planet of luck and expansion, is urging you to swim out of your comfort zone. Thanks to Jupiter unusual, wacky people, travel and learning all bring you a boost this year. Ready to dive in? Take the plunge! Perhaps you have been dreaming of shaking things up but were bogged down with responsibilities? The other big flavour of the year is collaboration. Father Saturn is urging you to commit to a plan and find the right tribe that you can trust in.
Working together with groups unearths rare treasure further down the line. Time to connect, be a joiner and have people around you for the long haul. There's some judgement Saturn and Sun in Cap and some envisioning Mercury. Jupiter in Sag and.. Full Moon in Cancer December Astrology! Wonder Girl Astrology. Now booking personal readings starting January 9th , scheduling is first come first serve!
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Hi Stargazers! With the Winter Solstice on Saturday, and the Full Moon in Cancer, we are presented with the cosmic opportunity to close a chapter o.. This horoscope in Tamil is prepared by experienced astrologers, who analyzed all zodiac signs to find out how this year is going to be for you. I will leave the comfort and safety of home, And venture out into the world, Going full speed into the unknown, With my sails completely unfurled!
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Quick Astrology Recap for Astro for the week of Dec 9th, pinkiethebear. I'm back! Since commencing his writing process in January , Lucas had done "various rewrites in the evenings after the day's work. It's always been what you might call a good idea in search of a story. He changed Starkiller to an adolescent boy, and he shifted the general into a supporting role as a member of a family of dwarfs.
He based Chewbacca on his Alaskan Malamute dog, Indiana whom he would later use as namesake for his character Indiana Jones , who often acted as the director's "co-pilot" by sitting in the passenger seat of his car. Lucas began researching the science-fiction genre by watching films and reading books and comics.
However, in this draft, the father is a hero who is still alive at the start of the film. Lucas completed a second draft of The Star Wars in January , making heavy simplifications and introducing the young hero on a farm as Luke Starkiller. Annikin became Luke's father, a wise Jedi knight.
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For example, Luke had several brothers, as well as his father, who appears in a minor role at the end of the film. This version ended with another text crawl, previewing the next story in the series. This draft was also the first to introduce the concept of a Jedi turning to the dark side: the draft included a historical Jedi who was the first to ever fall to the dark side, and then trained the Sith to use it.
Lucas hired conceptual artist Ralph McQuarrie to create paintings of certain scenes, several of which Lucas included with his screenplay when he delivered it to 20th Century Fox. This third draft had most of the elements of the final plot, with only some differences in the characters and settings. The draft characterized Luke as an only child, with his father already dead, replacing him with a substitute named Ben Kenobi. Lucas worked with his friends Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck to revise the fourth draft into the final pre-production script.
Lucas finished writing his script in March , when the crew started filming. He said, "What finally emerged through the many drafts of the script has obviously been influenced by science-fiction and action-adventure I've read and seen. And I've seen a lot of it. I'm trying to make a classic sort of genre picture, a classic space fantasy in which all the influences are working together. There are certain traditional aspects of the genre I wanted to keep and help perpetuate in Star Wars. For the film's opening crawl , Lucas originally wrote a composition consisting of six paragraphs with four sentences each.
It's like a poem. It goes on forever. It's gibberish. Let me sit down and write this for you. George Lucas recruited many conceptual designers, including Colin Cantwell, who worked on A Space Odyssey , to conceptualize the initial spacecraft models; Alex Tavoularis to create the preliminary conceptual storyboard sketches of early scripts; and Ralph McQuarrie to visualize the characters, costumes, props and scenery.
After McQuarrie's drawings for Lucas's colleagues Hal Barwood and Matthew Robbins who were collaborating for a film caught his interest, Lucas met with McQuarrie to discuss his plans for the untitled space fantasy film he wanted to make. Two years later, after completing American Graffiti , Lucas approached McQuarrie and asked him if he would be interested "in doing something for Star Wars. The film was ambitious as Lucas wanted to create fresh prop prototypes and sets based on McQuarrie's paintings that had never been realized before in science fiction films.
He commissioned production designers John Barry and Roger Christian , who were working on the sets of the film Lucky Lady when Lucas first approached them, to work on the production sets. Christian recounted in "George came to the set I was doing, it was an old salt factory design and he helped me shovel salt, just like two students in plaid shirts and sneakers. And we spoke and he looked at the set and couldn't believe it wasn't real. Christian said that Lucas "didn't want anything [in Star Wars ] to stand out, he wanted it [to look] all real and used.
And I said, 'Finally somebody's doing it the right way. Lucas described a "used future" concept to the production designers in which all devices, ships, and buildings looked aged and dirty. Barry said that the director "wants to make it look like it's shot on location on your average everyday Death Star or Mos Eisley Spaceport or local cantina. Nothing was new. George was going right against that. The designers started working with the director before Star Wars was approved by 20th Century Fox. As they could not afford to dress the sets, Christian was forced to use unconventional methods and materials to achieve the desired look.
He suggested that Lucas use scrap in making the dressings, and the director agreed. I used to do it with models when I was a kid. I'd stick things on them and we'd make things look old. According to Christian, the Millennium Falcon set was the most difficult to build. Christian wanted the interior of the Falcon to look like that of a submarine. The garbage compactor set "was also pretty hard, because I knew I had actors in there and the walls had to come in, and they had to be in dirty water and I had to get stuff that would be light enough so it wouldn't hurt them but also not bobbing around.
The massive rebel hangar set was housed at a second sound stage at Shepperton Studios ; the stage was the largest in Europe at the time. Most of the visual effects used pioneering digital motion control photography developed by John Dykstra and his team, which created the illusion of size by employing small models and slowly moving cameras. George Lucas tried "to get a cohesive reality" for his feature. However, since the film is a fairy tale , as he had described, "I still wanted it to have an ethereal quality, yet be well composed and, also, have an alien look.
To achieve this, he hired the British cinematographer Gilbert Taylor. However, he eventually withdrew to work on the Vincente Minnelli -directed A Matter of Time instead, which "really annoy[ed]" Kurtz. Strangelove and A Hard Day's Night both On his decision, Lucas said: "I thought they were good, eccentrically photographed pictures with a strong documentary flavor.
Taylor said that Lucas, who was consumed by the details of the complicated production, "avoided all meetings and contact with me from day one, so I read the extra-long script many times and made my own decisions as to how I would shoot the picture. During production, Lucas and Taylor—whom Kurtz called "old-school" and "crotchety"  —had disputes over filming. His lighting suggestions were rejected by Taylor, who believed that Lucas was overstepping his boundaries by giving specific instructions, sometimes even moving lights and cameras himself.
Taylor refused to use the soft-focus lenses and gauze Lucas wanted after Fox executives complained about the look. Originally, Lucas envisioned the planet of Tatooine , where much of the film would take place, as a jungle planet. Gary Kurtz traveled to the Philippines to scout locations; however, because of the idea of spending months filming in the jungle would make Lucas "itchy", the director refined his vision and made Tatooine a desert planet instead.
When principal photography began on March 22, , in the Tunisian desert for the scenes on Tatooine, the project faced several problems. Taylor said, "you couldn't really see where the land ended and the sky began. It was all a gray mess, and the robots were just a blur. But George saw it differently, so we tried using nets and other diffusion. He asked to set up one shot on the robots with a mm, and the sand and sky just mushed together.
I told him it wouldn't work, but he said that was the way he wanted to do the entire film, all diffused. Filming began in Chott el Djerid , while a construction crew in Tozeur took eight weeks to transform the desert into the desired setting. Kenny Baker , who portrayed R2-D2, said: "I was incredibly grateful each time an [R2] would actually work right. Lucas chose Hotel Sidi Driss, which is larger than the typical underground dwellings, to shoot the interior of Luke's homestead.
After two and a half weeks of filming in Tunisia,  production moved to Elstree Studios , near London. It was also the only studio of its kind in Britain or America that could cater for nine large stages at the same time and allow the company complete freedom to use its own personnel. Most of the crew considered the project a "children's film", rarely took their work seriously, and often found it unintentionally humorous.
Harrison Ford found it strange that "there's a princess with weird buns in her hair", and called Chewbacca a "giant in a monkey suit. This would result in "a 'cut-out' system of panel lighting", with quartz lamps that could be placed in the holes in the walls, ceiling and floors. His idea was supported by the Fox studio, which agreed that "we couldn't have this ' black hole of Calcutta. Lucas commissioned computer programmer Larry Cuba to create the animated Death Star plans shown at the rebel base on Yavin 4.
This was written with the GRASS programming language , exported to a Vector General monitor and filmed on 35 mm to be rear-projected on the set. It is the only computer animation in the original version of the film. Lucas selected the location as a potential filming site after seeing a poster of it hanging at a travel agency while he was filming in Britain. This inspired him to send a film crew to Guatemala in March to shoot scenes. While filming in Tikal, the crew paid locals with a six pack of beer to watch over the camera equipment for several days. While shooting, Lucas rarely spoke to the actors, who believed that he expected too much of them while providing little direction.
His directions to the actors usually consisted of the words "faster" and "more intense". A lot of actors don't mind—they don't care, they just get on with it. But some actors really need a lot of pampering and a lot of feedback, and if they don't get it, they get paranoid that they might not be doing a good job.
Ladd offered Lucas some of the only support from the studio; he dealt with scrutiny from board members over the rising budget and complex screenplay drafts. Kurtz said that "it came out to be like 9. Under the new system, the project met the studio's deadline. During production, the cast attempted to make Lucas laugh or smile, as he often appeared depressed.
At one point, the project became so demanding that Lucas was diagnosed with hypertension and exhaustion and was warned to reduce his stress level. Moreover, Mark Hamill 's car accident left his face visibly scarred, which restricted re-shoots. Star Wars was originally slated for release on Christmas ; however, its production delays pushed the film's release to mid Richard Chew found the film to have a lethargic pace and to have been cut in a by-the-book manner: scenes were played out in master shots that flowed into close-up coverage.
He found that the pace was dictated by the actors instead of the cuts. Hirsch and Chew worked on two reels simultaneously. Jympson's original assembly contained a large amount of footage which differed from the final cut of the film, including several alternate takes and a number of scenes which were subsequently deleted to improve the narrative pace. The most significant material cut was a series of scenes from the first part of the film which introduced Luke Skywalker.
These early scenes, set in Anchorhead on the planet Tatooine, presented the audience with Luke's everyday life among his friends as it is affected by the space battle above the planet; they also introduced the character of Biggs Darklighter , Luke's closest friend who departs to join the rebellion. There were too many story lines to keep straight: the robots and the Princess, Vader, Luke. So we simplified it by taking out Luke and Biggs. As a result, the film was more "leisurely paced". After viewing a rough cut, Alan Ladd likened the early Anchorhead scenes to " American Graffiti in outer space.
The company had spent half of its budget on four shots that Lucas deemed unacceptable. Lucas inspired ILM by editing together aerial dogfights from old war films, which enhanced the pacing of the scenes. During the chaos of production and post-production, the team made decisions about character voicing and sound effects. Sound designer Ben Burtt had created a library of sounds that Lucas referred to as an "organic soundtrack.
The lightsaber sound effect was developed by Burtt as a combination of the hum of idling interlock motors in aged movie projectors and interference caused by a television set on a shieldless microphone. Burtt discovered the latter accidentally as he was looking for a buzzing, sparking sound to add to the projector-motor hum. Lucas and Burtt created the robotic voice of R2-D2 by filtering their voices through an electronic synthesizer.
Darth Vader's breathing was achieved by Burtt breathing through the mask of a scuba regulator implanted with a microphone. In February , Lucas screened an early cut of the film for Fox executives, several director friends, along with Roy Thomas and Howard Chaykin of Marvel Comics who were preparing a Star Wars comic book.
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The cut had a different crawl from the finished version and used Prowse's voice for Darth Vader. It also lacked most special effects; hand-drawn arrows took the place of blaster beams, and when the Millennium Falcon fought TIE fighters , the film cut to footage of World War II dogfights. Spielberg, who said he was the only person in the audience to have enjoyed the film, believed that the lack of enthusiasm was due to the absence of finished special effects.
Lucas later said that the group was honest and seemed bemused by the film. In contrast, Ladd and the other studio executives loved the film; Gareth Wigan told Lucas: "This is the greatest film I've ever seen" and cried during the screening. Lucas found the experience shocking and rewarding, having never gained any approval from studio executives before.
Lucas had planned to rework a confrontation scene between Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt in Mos Eisley Spaceport by compositing a stop-motion animated model of Jabba to replace the actor Declan Mulholland , but with time and money running out, Lucas reluctantly decided to cut the scene entirely. The sequence was later re-instated in the Special Edition with a computer-generated version of Jabba. Williams had worked with Spielberg on the film Jaws , for which he won an Academy Award.
Lucas believed that the film would portray visually foreign worlds, but that the musical score would give the audience an emotional familiarity; he wanted a grand musical sound for Star Wars , with leitmotifs to provide distinction. Therefore, he assembled his favorite orchestral pieces for the soundtrack, until Williams convinced him that an original score would be unique and more unified. However, a few of Williams's pieces were influenced by the tracks given to him by Lucas: the "Main Title Theme" was inspired by the theme from the film Kings Row , scored by Erich Wolfgang Korngold ; and the track "Dune Sea of Tatooine" drew from the soundtrack of Bicycle Thieves , scored by Alessandro Cicognini.
The American Film Institute 's list of best film scores ranks the Star Wars soundtrack at number one. According to Lucas, different concepts of the film were inspired by numerous sources, such as Beowulf and King Arthur for the origins of myth and religion. The influence of The Hidden Fortress can be seen in the relationship between C-3PO and R2-D2, which evolved from the two bickering peasants, Tahei and Matashichi, and a Japanese family crest seen in the earlier film is similar to the Imperial Crest.
Star Wars also borrows heavily from another Kurosawa film, Yojimbo There are also thematic parallels, including the freedom fight by a rebel army against an empire, and politicians who meddle behind the scenes. Tatooine is similar to the desert planet of Arrakis from Frank Herbert 's Dune series. Arrakis is the only known source of a longevity spice ; Star Wars makes references to spice in "the spice mines of Kessel", and a spice freighter.
In passing, Uncle Owen and Aunt Beru are "moisture farmers"; in Dune , dew collectors are used by Fremen to "provide a small but reliable source of water. The Death Star assault scene was modeled after the World War II film The Dam Busters , in which Royal Air Force Lancaster bombers fly along heavily defended reservoirs and aim bouncing bombs at dams, in order to cripple the heavy industry of Germany's Ruhr region. In addition, the sequence was partially inspired by the climax of the film Squadron , directed by Walter Grauman ,  in which RAF de Havilland Mosquitos attack a German heavy water plant by flying down a narrow fjord to drop special bombs at a precise point, while avoiding anti-aircraft guns and German fighters.
Clips from both films were included in Lucas's temporary dogfight footage version of the sequence.
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The opening shot of Star Wars , in which a detailed spaceship fills the screen overhead, is a reference to the scene introducing the interplanetary spacecraft Discovery One in Stanley Kubrick 's seminal film A Space Odyssey. The earlier big-budget science fiction film influenced the look of Star Wars in many other ways, including the use of EVA pods and hexagonal corridors. The Death Star has a docking bay reminiscent of the one on the orbiting space station in While the film was in production, a logo was commissioned from Dan Perri , a title sequence designer who had worked on the titles for films such as The Exorcist and Taxi Driver This logo design was originally conceived to follow the same perspective as the film's opening crawl.
In the end, Perri's logo was not used for the film's opening title sequence, although it was used widely on pre-release print advertising and on cinema marquees. The logotype eventually selected for on-screen use originated in a promotional brochure that was distributed by Fox to cinema owners in This brochure was designed by Suzy Rice , a young art director at the Los Angeles advertising agency Seiniger Advertising.
On a visit to ILM in Van Nuys, Rice was instructed by Lucas to produce a logo that would intimidate the viewer, and he reportedly asked for the logo to appear "very fascist " in style. Rice's response to her brief was to use an outlined, modified Helvetica Black. Lucas signed off on the brochure in between takes while filming inserts for the Mos Eisley Cantina scene. Gary Kurtz was impressed with Rice's logo and selected it over Perri's design for the film's opening titles, after modifying the letter W to flatten the pointed tips originally designed by Rice. This finalized the design of one of the most recognisable logos in cinema design, although Rice's contribution was not credited in the film.
For the US release in , 20th Century Fox commissioned a promotional film poster from the advertising agency Smolen, Smith and Connolly. They used the freelance artist Tom Jung who was given the brief of "good over evil. Some Fox executives considered this poster "too dark" and commissioned the Brothers Hildebrandt , a pair of well-known fantasy artists , to rework the poster for the UK release. Fox and Lucasfilm subsequently decided that they wanted to promote the new film with a less stylised and more realistic depiction of the lead characters. Producer Gary Kurtz turned to the film poster artist Tom Chantrell , who was already well known for his prolific work for Hammer horror films , and commissioned a new version.
Charles Lippincott was the marketing director for Star Wars. As 20th Century Fox gave little support for marketing beyond licensing T-shirts and posters, Lippincott was forced to look elsewhere. He secured deals with Marvel Comics for a comic book adaptation, and with Del Rey Books for a novelization. A fan of science fiction, he used his contacts to promote the film at the San Diego Comic-Con and elsewhere within science-fiction fandom.
While initially only being released in a limited theatrical run, Star Wars was an unprecedented success for 20th Century Fox, soon becoming a blockbuster hit and expanding to a much wider release. It would eventually see many theatrical and home video re-releases. However, fewer than 40 theaters ordered the film to be shown. In response, the studio demanded that theaters order Star Wars if they wanted the eagerly anticipated The Other Side of Midnight based on the novel by the same name. Star Wars debuted on Wednesday, May 25, , in fewer than 32 theaters, and eight more on Thursday and Friday.
Kurtz said in , "That would be laughable today. Spielberg disagreed, and believed Star Wars would be the bigger hit. Lucas proposed they trade 2. Fox initially had doubts if Star Wars would emerge successful. The Other Side of Midnight was supposed to be the studio's big summer hit, while Lucas's movie was considered the "B track" for theater owners nationwide.
While Fox requested Mann's Chinese Theatre , the studio promised that the film only needed two weeks. Having forgotten that the film would open that day,  he spent most of Wednesday in a sound studio in Los Angeles. When Lucas went out for lunch with Marcia, they encountered a long line of people along the sidewalks leading to Mann's Chinese Theatre , waiting to see Star Wars. The film was a huge success for 20th Century Fox, and was credited for reinvigorating the company.
Within three weeks of the film's release, the studio's stock price had doubled to a record high. After the screening, the audience was silent, leading him to fear that the film would be unsuccessful. Ladd was reassured by his local contacts that this was a positive reaction considering that in Japan, silence was the greatest honor to a film, and the subsequent strong box office returns confirmed its popularity. After two weeks William Friedkin 's Sorcerer replaced Star Wars at Mann's Chinese Theatre because of contractual obligations; Mann Theatres moved the film to a less-prestigious location after quickly renovating it.
News reports of the film's popularity in America caused long lines to form at the two London theaters that first offered the film; it became available in 12 large cities in January , and other London theaters in February. Star Wars was re-released theatrically in , , and ,  with the subtitle Episode IV — A New Hope being added in The film was digitally remastered with some altered scenes in for a theatrical rerelease, dubbed the "Special Edition.
In , Star Wars was dubbed into Navajo , making it the first major motion picture translated into a Native American language. The retroactive addition of these subtitles was intended to bring the film into line with the introduction to its sequel, The Empire Strikes Back , which was released in bearing the designation "Episode V". This version of the film runs minutes. The Special Edition contains visual shots and scenes that were unachievable in the original release due to financial, technological, and time constraints; one such scene involves a meeting between Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt.
Star Wars required extensive recovery of misplaced footage and restoration of the whole film before Lucas's Special Edition modifications could be attempted. It was discovered that in addition to the negative motion picture stocks commonly used on feature films, Lucas had also used Color Reversal Internegative CRI film, a reversal stock subsequently discontinued by Kodak. CRI proved to deteriorate faster than negative stocks did, although it theoretically was of higher quality, as it saved two generations an interpositive followed by an internegative , where employed.
Because of this, the entire composited negative had to be disassembled, and the CRI portions cleaned separately from the negative portions. Once the cleaning was complete, the film was scanned into the computer for restoration. In many cases, entire scenes had to be reconstructed from their individual elements. Digital compositing technology allowed the restorers to correct for problems such as misalignment of mattes and "blue-spill. By , this copy had been transferred to a 2K scan, now available to be viewed by appointment. The final issue of the original theatrical release pre-Special Edition to VHS format occurred in , as part of "Last Chance to Own the Original" campaign, available as part of a trilogy set and as a standalone purchase.
The films were digitally restored and remastered, and more changes were made by Lucas. The trilogy was re-released on separate two-disc limited edition DVD sets from September 12 to December 31, , and again in a limited edition tin box set on November 4, ;  the original versions of the films were added as bonus material. The release was met with criticism as the unaltered versions were from the non- anamorphic LaserDisc masters and were not re-transferred using modern video standards.
The transfer led to problems with colors and digital image jarring. All six Star Wars films were released by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment on Blu-ray Disc on September 16, in three different editions, with A New Hope available in both a box set of the original trilogy   and with all six films on Star Wars: The Complete Saga , which includes nine discs and over 40 hours of special features. New changes were made to the films, provoking mixed responses.
Fox released A New Hope for digital download on April 10, In December , Rogue One director Gareth Edwards revealed that Lucasfilm had recently completed a 4K restoration of Star Wars , but did not elaborate on whether the restored version was based on the original or a subsequent re-release. Star Wars remains one of the most financially successful films of all time. On July 21, while still in current release in 38 theaters in the U. Following the release of the Special Edition in ,  Star Wars briefly reclaimed the North American record before losing it again the following year to Titanic.
The film was met with critical acclaim upon its release. In his review, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "an out-of-body experience", compared its special effects to those of A Space Odyssey , and opined that the true strength of the film was its "pure narrative. Murphy of Variety described the film as "magnificent" and said George Lucas had succeeded in his attempt to create the "biggest possible adventure fantasy" based on the serials and older action epics from his childhood. When Star Wars opened in the UK, stating that Lucas's earlier films were better, Derek Malcolm of The Guardian concluded that it "plays enough games to satisfy the most sophisticated.
The film continues to receive critical acclaim from modern critics. Its consensus states in summary, "A legendarily expansive and ambitious start to the sci-fi saga, George Lucas opened our eyes to the possibilities of blockbuster filmmaking and things have never been the same. Gene Siskel , writing for the Chicago Tribune in , said, "What places it a sizable cut above the routine is its spectacular visual effects, the best since Stanley Kubrick 's I doubt that anyone will ever match it, though the imitations must already be on the drawing boards.
The film garnered numerous accolades after its release. The original Star Wars trilogy is considered one of the best film trilogies in history. However, he said that his story material for Star Wars was too long for a single film, prompting Lucas to split the story into multiple films. As the stories unfolded, I would take certain ideas and save them I kept taking out all the good parts, and I just kept telling myself I would make other movies someday.
The film has spawned a series of films consisting of three trilogies including the original film , anthology films and an extensive media franchise called the Star Wars expanded universe including books , television series, computer and video games , and comic books. However, many bootleg copies exist, and the special has consequently become something of an underground legend.
A radio drama adaptation of the film was broadcast on the American National Public Radio network in It also featured scenes not seen in the final cut of the film, such as Luke Skywalker's observation of the space battle above Tatooine through binoculars, a skyhopper race, and Darth Vader's interrogation of Princess Leia. The radio version was originally considered to be part of the official Star Wars canon ,   but has since been supplanted by revised canonical narratives.
Star Wars and its ensuing film installments have been explicitly referenced and satirized across a wide range of media. Hardware Wars , released in , was one of the first fan films to parody Star Wars. Contemporary animated comedy TV series Family Guy ,  Robot Chicken ,  and The Simpsons  have produced episodes satirizing the film series. Star Wars , together with Lucas, is the subject of the documentary film The People vs. George Lucas that details the issues of filmmaking and fanaticism pertaining to the film franchise and its creator.
The iconic weapon of choice of the Jedi , the lightsaber , was voted as the most popular weapon in film history in a survey of approximately 2, film fans. Approximately mailboxes across the country were also designed to look like R2-D2. The film was one of the first films to link genres together to invent a new, high-concept genre for filmmakers to build upon. Jackson used the concept for his production of The Lord of the Rings trilogy to add a sense of realism and believability.
Some critics have blamed Star Wars , as well as Jaws , for ruining Hollywood by shifting its focus from "sophisticated" films such as The Godfather , Taxi Driver , and Annie Hall to films about spectacle and juvenile fantasy. They marched backward through the looking-glass. In an article intended for the cover of the issue, Time ' s Gerald Clarke wrote that Star Wars is "a grand and glorious film that may well be the smash hit of , and certainly is the best movie of the year so far.
The result is a remarkable confection: a subliminal history of the movies, wrapped in a riveting tale of suspense and adventure, ornamented with some of the most ingenious special effects ever contrived for film. American Film Institute . Star Wars was voted the second most popular film by Americans in a nationwide poll conducted by the market research firm, Harris Interactive.
Reputable publications also have included Star Wars in their best films lists: in , Empire magazine ranked Star Wars at No. Lucas's original screenplay was selected by the Writers Guild of America as the 68th greatest of all time. In addition to the film's multiple awards and nominations, Star Wars has also been recognized by the American Film Institute on several of its lists.
Little Star Wars merchandise was available for several months after the film's debut, as only Kenner Products had accepted marketing director Charles Lippincott's licensing offers. Kenner responded to the sudden demand for toys by selling boxed vouchers in its "empty box" Christmas campaign.
Television commercials told children and parents that vouchers within a "Star Wars Early Bird Certificate Package" could be redeemed for four action figures between February and June The novelization of the film was published as Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker in December , six months before the film was released. The credited author was George Lucas, but the book was revealed to have been ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster.
Marketing director Charles Lippincott secured the deal with Del Rey Books to publish the novelization in November By February , a half million copies had been sold. Marvel Comics also adapted the film as the first six issues of its licensed Star Wars comic book , with the first issue sold in April Roy Thomas was the writer and Howard Chaykin was the artist of the adaptation.
Like the novelization, it contained certain elements, such as the scene with Luke and Biggs, that appeared in the screenplay but not in the finished film. Lucasfilm adapted the story for a children's book-and-record set. Each page of the book contained a cropped frame from the movie with an abridged and condensed version of the story. The script was adapted by E. Jack Kaplan and Cheryl Gard. An audio CD boxed set of the Star Wars radio series was released in , containing the original radio drama along with the radio adaptations of the sequels, The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the film. For other uses, see A New Hope disambiguation. Theatrical release poster by Tom Jung. It's the flotsam and jetsam from the period when I was twelve years old. All the books and films and comics that I liked when I was a child.
The plot is simple—good against evil—and the film is designed to be all the fun things and fantasy things I remember. The word for this movie is fun. Star Wars has no points of reference to Earth time or space, with which we are familiar, and it is not about the future but some galactic past or some extra-temporal present, it is a decidedly inhabited and used place where the hardware is taken for granted. Main article: Star Wars soundtrack. See also: Star Wars sources and analogues. War films such as The Dam Busters and Squadron , which used aircraft like the Avro Lancaster top and the Mosquito bottom , respectively, were inspirations for the battle sequences.
On opening day I I said, 'You know a lot about the film. See also: Changes in Star Wars re-releases. What makes the Star Wars experience unique, though, is that it happens on such an innocent and often funny level. It's usually violence that draws me so deeply into a movie—violence ranging from the psychological torment of a Bergman character to the mindless crunch of a shark's jaws. Maybe movies that scare us find the most direct route to our imaginations. But there's hardly any violence at all in Star Wars and even then it's presented as essentially bloodless swashbuckling.